You are here: Home » Latest Issue » Volume 17, 2022 - Number 2 » ASSESSMENT OF RIVER SEDIMENT QUALITY ACCORDING TO THE EU WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE IN MOUNTAINOUS FLUVIAL CONDITIONS. A CASE STUDY IN THE UPPER TISA AREA, DANUBE RIVER BASIN, Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences August 2022, Vol. 17, No. 2, p. 441 – 458; DOI:10.26471/cjees/2022/017/234
Gheorghe, DAMIAN1, Gheorghe IEPURE2, Gyozo JORDAN3, Daniel NASUI2, Jasminka ALIJAGIC4, Danijel IVANIŠEVIĆ5, Lidija GALOVIĆ5, Ioan BERES6 & The SIMONA Project Teama
1Alexandru Ioan Cuza Univ, Fac Geog & Geol, Dept Geol, Iasi 700505, Romania, firstname.lastname@example.org
2Tech Univ Cluj Napoca, North Univ Center Baia Mare, Baia Mare 430083, Romania, Gheorghe.IEPURE@irmmm.utcluj.ro; email@example.com
3Institute for Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter sétány 11/A, 1117 Budapest, Hungary, firstname.lastname@example.org
4Scopolijeva ulica 10, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; email@example.com
5Croatian Geological Survey, Sachsova 2., 10 000, Zagreb, Croatia; firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com.
6The "Victor Gorduza" County Museum of Mineralogy, Baia Mare 430212, Romania; firstname.lastname@example.org
ASSESSMENT OF RIVER SEDIMENT QUALITY ACCORDING TO THE EU WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE IN MOUNTAINOUS FLUVIAL CONDITIONS. A CASE STUDY IN THE UPPER TISA AREA, DANUBE RIVER BASIN, Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences August 2022, Vol. 17, No. 2, p. 441 – 458; DOI:10.26471/cjees/2022/017/234
Discharge of hazardous substances (HSs) in hydrographic basins represent a danger to aquatic biological activity and water supplies and can severely pollute surface water sediments. The increase of pollution in the Danube Basin requires the implementation of systematic monitoring and evaluation of the sediments quality as dictated by the EU Water Framework Directive. For this system development, applicable in mountainous conditions, the Upper Tisa region in the northwest part of Romania on the border with Ukraine, Hungary and Slovakia was selected as a test area. Sampling of overbank (floodplain) sediment, river bottom sediment and suspended sediment was carried out at 10 locations in the test area in order to analyze the concentration and distribution of eight metal(oid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, Ni, Cr and As), in addition to 3 organic components (anthracene, fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene) as hazardous substances (HSs). The sediment quality assessment was carried out according to the 2013/39/EU Directive and EU Water Framework Directive standards. Most of the analyzed HS concentrations in river bottom sediment and overbank (floodplain) sediments fall within the limits of environmental quality standards (EQS). As, Cu, Pb, and Zn tend to exceed the EQS at some locations. The highest exceedances were recorded for Pb, for which contents of up to 987 mg/kg were detected. The highest contents were found in the overbank sediments sampled, and the lowest in river bottom sediments, which may indicate historical pollution. Mercury contents in overbank sediment samples exceed all standards, while cadmium content is below the international standards. Anthracene, fluoranthene and benzo(e)pyrene concentrations in overbank and bottom sediments comply with international standards. A few samples in suspended sediments slightly exceed the lowest environmental standard value (i.e., Romanian normal value). HS concentrations remain low in the suspended sediments showing that it is not the main transport route for pollution in this area. HS contents decrease gradually from upstream to downstream due to dilution along the river course. In the last testing point at Someș Aciua, the concentration of metal(oid)s measured in the sediments remain below the EQS limit values, thus there is no risk of transboundary pollution. The main source of metal(oid) contamination is historic base-metal ore mining and the associated mine waste sites in the Baia Mare and other mining areas scattered around the whole region. The main source of the studied organic compounds is the incomplete or low-temperature coal combustion processes that occur in households in rural areas.
Keyword: river sediment, monitoring, heavy metals, organic substances, EQS evaluation, correlation, sources, anthropic activity, geological background.
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