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You are here: Home » Latest Issue » Volume 17, 2022 - Number 2 » INESITE, HUBEITE, RUIZITE, APOPHYLLITE, AND MANGANOAN ILVAITE FROM CAVNIC, EASTERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA, Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences August 2022, Vol. 17, No. 2, p. 387 – 400; DOI:10.26471/cjees/2022/017/230


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Paulina HÎRTOPANU1, Delia-Georgeta DUMITRAŞ2, Ştefan MARINCEA2, Nicolae CĂLIN2
1University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, RO, paulinahirtopanu@hotmail.com
2Geological Institute of Romania, Caransebeş Str., RO-012271, Bucharest, RO, d_deliaro@yahoo.com


INESITE, HUBEITE, RUIZITE, APOPHYLLITE, AND MANGANOAN ILVAITE FROM CAVNIC, EASTERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA, Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences August 2022, Vol. 17, No. 2, p. 387 – 400; DOI:10.26471/cjees/2022/017/230

Full text

Abstract:

The rare minerals, inesite, Ca2Mn2+7Si10O28(OH)2·5H2O, hubeite, Ca2Mn2+Fe3+Si4O12(OH)·2H2O, and ruizite, Ca2Mn3+Si4O11(OH)4·2H2O, were determined, for the first time, by optical and XRD analyses, at Cavnic (Baia Mare Neogene metallogenetic district, Eastern Carpathians, Romania) in a gold-bearing, base metal deposit. Inesite was refined as triclinic, in space group P1 (2), and has the following unit-cell parameters (refined from X-ray powder diffraction data): a = 8.927(7) Å, b = 9.245(8) Å, c = 11.954(9) Å; α = 91.80(2)°, β = 132.60(1)°, γ = 94.37(3)°, V = 719.45(12)Å3. Hubeite was also refined as triclinic, in space group P1, and has as unit-cell parameters: a = 9.960(7) Å, b = 13.870(9) Å, c = 6.562(4) Å, V = 601.19(17) Å3; α = 133.19(5)°, β =101.50(3)°, γ = 66.27(4)°. Ruizite was refined on a monoclinic cell, space group A2 (5) and has the following unit-cell parameters: a = 11.974(9)Å, b = 6.175(5)Å, c = 9.052(7)Å, V = 669.12 (9)Å3; β = 91.34(3)°. Apophyllite, KCa4Si8O20(F,OH)·8H2O, is tetragonal, space group P4/mnc (128), and has a = 8.960(3) Å, c = 15.767(7) Å and V = 1265.80(11) Å3. The terms identified represent a solid solutions series between the two end-members, fluorapophyllite and hydroxyapophyllite. Manganoan ilvaite, CaFe2+Fe3+(Fe2+, Mn)(Si2O7)(O)(OH), crystallizes in the space group Pnam (62), and has as unit-cell parameters: a = 13.008(7) Å; b = 8.865(5) Å; c = 5.845(3) Å, V = 674.02(9) Å3. The textural relations of inesite /hubeite/ruizite /apophyllite/manganoan ilvaite assemblage show that the oldest mineral is manganoan ilvaite, as inesite and hubeite overgrow and engulf this mineral. Hubeite is indicative for mildly oxidizing crystallization, conditions. Both hubeite and ruizite are Ca-Mn hydrated silicates. However, all Mn is divalent in hubeite and trivalent in ruizite. In addition, ruizite is Fe-free, whereas hubeite contains significant Fe3+. Ruizite Ca2Mn3+Si4O11(OH)4.2H2O was formed under higher oxidizing conditions as compared with hubeite. Sudoite and specularite also occurs in this oxidized assemblage. Sudoite, Mg2(Al.Fe3+)3Si3O10(OH)8, is monoclinic and has as space group C2m (12) and as unit-cell parameters a = 5.237(2) Å, b = 9.070(5) Å, c = 14.285(8), β = 97.00, V = 673.47(14) Å3. The carbonate closely associated to this assemblage is a Mn- and Ca-bearing siderite, which crystallizes in space group R-3c (167), having as unit-cell parameters: a = 4.694(1) Å; c = 15.386(5) Å, and V = 293.53(13) Å3. The secondary minerals occurring in this assemblage as determined by X-ray powder diffraction are: gold, sphalerite, pyrite, and galena. The origin of vein assemblage inesite /hubeite /ruizite /apophyllite is hydrothermal (epithermal); there exist indications of a genesis at low temperature, around 200°C. The assemblage indicated before is grown on manganoan ilvaite, which is the oldest mineral in this association. There are no signs of the genesis of manganoan ilvaite /inesite /hubeite /ruizite assemblage at the expense of higher T anhydrous manganese minerals such as rhodonite or johannsenite.



Keyword: inesite, hubeite, ruizite, apophyllite, manganoan ilvaite, sudoite, gold, Neogene epithermal vein genesis.


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