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You are here: Home » Online First » Volume 19, 2024 - Number 1 » ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION IN AN INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT USING HEAVY METAL POLLUTION INDICES AND STABLE ISOTOPES, CASE STUDY OF THE INDUSTRIAL ZONE OF SKIKDA, NORTH-EAST ALGERIA, Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences February 2024, Vol. 19, No. 1, p. 33 – 50; DOI:10.26471/cjees/2024/019/278


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Amina HAFSI1, Ahcene BOUREFIS1, Farès KESSASRA2*, & Abdellah BOUSHABA3
1Affiliation Laboratory of geology and environment, université Constantine1-frères Mentouri, Algeria.aminahafsi18@gmail.com;bourefisahcene@yahoo.fr, amina.hafsi@doc.umc.edu.dz
2Laboratory of Geological Engineering (LGG), Team 3 "Geology", University of Jijel, Algeria.*Department of Earth and Universe Sciences, University of Jijel, Central Campus, Algeria.fareskessasra@yahoo.fr
3Department of Geology, Sidi Mohamed Benabdellah University, Fes, Morocco,abdellah.boushaba@gmail.com


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION IN AN INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT USING HEAVY METAL POLLUTION INDICES AND STABLE ISOTOPES, CASE STUDY OF THE INDUSTRIAL ZONE OF SKIKDA, NORTH-EAST ALGERIA, Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences February 2024, Vol. 19, No. 1, p. 33 – 50; DOI:10.26471/cjees/2024/019/278

Full text

Abstract:

An environmental assessment study was conducted in the industrial area of Skikda in the Northeast of Algeria which involved physicochemical parameters, heavy metal concentrations, and stable isotopes of surface water, groundwater, and soil. The results revealed high concentrations of Cd, Ni, Fe, Cu, As, Cr, Pb, Co, and Mn in groundwater. The southern part exhibited the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while the industrial zone in the North contained the highest levels. Therefore, the industrial area showed significant pollution in groundwater by Cr, Pb, and As with respectively 0.5, 0.69, and 0.44 mg/l, surpassing the respective WHO(World Health Organization) standards of 0.05, 0.01, and 0.01 mg/l. Spatial analysis showed that the industrial area presents higher concentrations of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Fe which demonstrated similar trends in spatial distribution, their concentrations increasing within the industrial zone. However, the western part had no significant pollution sources except for a public landfill and SONATRACH industrial complex, high concentrations of Co and Mn in the south and the west parts were observed. Mean concentration in soils indicated that Cd is ranged between35.32 to 95.12 ppm, for Fe between 145.1 and 702 ppm, As varies between 1.03 and 81.85 ppm, and Zn between 50 and 520.32 ppm and considered as dominant metals. However, Mn, Co and Cr were lower respectively with 1.97, 12.11 and 7.25 ppm. Cd and As were most influenced by the polluting companies, while Cr was mainly influenced by natural factors, such as pH and soil type. Based on the contamination degree index, the soil pollution levels of Cd, Pb, and As were classified as extremely contaminated. The statistical analysis indicated substantial anthropogenic contributions to groundwater contamination concentrated in the industrial area. The groundwater exhibits a range of δ18O and δ2H values, varying from 2.45 to -5.33‰ and 19.82 to -1.67‰ vs. the V-SMOW (Vienna-Standard Mean Ocean Water) standard, respectively. The mean isotopic composition is -2.50‰ for δ18O, -19.32‰ for δ2H, with a mean deuterium excess of 6.45. These values align with the Meteoric Water Line observed in the western Mediterranean region. It indicates a hydrological connection between recharge and groundwater which suggests a significant interaction between groundwater and surface water. Due to their proximity to the river and the shallow aquifer, the downstream area is more vulnerable to surface pollution. Furthermore, the young groundwater in the downstream can be attributed to the rapid recharge and replenishment of the aquifer caused by rainfall and quick infiltration and sustained by the shallow aquifer depth and sandy soil. Consequently, the rainwater and industrial wastes lead to faster pollutant infiltration. Anthropogenic sources, including industrial effluents from smelting, refining, manufacturing, steel and textile industries, electroplating, nickel-cadmium battery production, welding, PVC product and paint pigment manufacturing, were identified as major contributors to heavy metal pollution.



Keyword: Water pollution, multivariate statistics, stable isotopes, contamination index, Skikda, Algeria.


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