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You are here: Home » Online First » Volume 13, 2018 - Number 2 » THE IMPACT OF WATERMILLS ON CHANGES IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC NETWORK IN THE CARPATHIAN FOOTHILLS IN POLAND, Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, August 2018, Vol. 13, No. 2, p. 605 - 611; DOI:10.26471/cjees/2018/013/051


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Karol WITKOWSKI1 & Marcin WITKOWSKI2
1Institute of Geography, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Podchorazych St. 2, 30-084 Krakow, Poland; e-mail: karol.witkowski@up.krakow.pl
2Institut of History, Jagiellonian University, Golebia St. 13, 31-007 Krakow, Poland; e-mail: marcinwitkowski.muzeum@wp.pl


THE IMPACT OF WATERMILLS ON CHANGES IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC NETWORK IN THE CARPATHIAN FOOTHILLS IN POLAND, Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, August 2018, Vol. 13, No. 2, p. 605 - 611; DOI:10.26471/cjees/2018/013/051

Full text

Abstract:

The impact of watermills on transformations in the hydrographic network in the highlands has not yet been examined. However, these issues were discussed in depth in regard to lowland areas where milling constituted an important part of the economy. Our studies prove that it was watermills that significantly affected the transformation of the hydrographic network in the Carpathian Foothills. The aim of our studies was to determine the impact of the structure, functioning, and closing of watermills on the hydrographic network in Wadowice and the surrounding area (west Carpathian Foothills, Lesser Poland Province, Poland). The studies were conducted based on archived topographic maps and historical sources. The development of milling in Wadowice that started in the 15th century had led to the increased density and transformation of the river network due to about 6.8 kilometres of mill race. Despite nearly all the mill races being closed down in the 20th century, they left a lasting mark in the altered river network. At present, fragments of former man-made beds constitute part of a drainage network, whereas the course of two tributaries of the Skawa does not correspond to this day to the morphology of the bottom of the Skawa valley. Despite not having any significant role in the economy throughout history, water milling in the Carpathian Foothills has left a lasting mark in the river network.



Keyword: watermill, mill race, mill pond, hydrographic network, valley density, anthropopression


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